Development and Evaluation of a Binocular Stereoscopic Display System with Coupled Convergence and Accommodation Demands

portion of the 3D display. the left- and right-eye views have been overlaid, and stereo disparity can be seen as a double image effect This project aims to solve the problem of the decoupling of the convergence and accommodation in general stereo systems. Unlike the previous solution to the decoupling of the convergence and accommodation by way of measuring eye fixation and adjusting the screen optical distance to match the fixated object distance simulated via disparity, which is quite difficult to implement, our solution is to use eye movements monitoring to determine the object being fixated and change the disparity or convergence demand of all objects to bring the fixated object to zero disparity and thus remove the convergence accommodation decoupling conflict. This can be done computationlly and thus simplify the system as it requires no change in hardware from current designs. The final aim of this project is to build a new stereo system which the viewer can feel more comfortable.

Demo Videos

A short Quicktime video demonstrating the convergence changing can be downloaded for viewing here. Two versions (encoded differently) are provided. If the first one (which is much smaller) doesn't work for you, try the second (which is very large).

You can download Quicktime for free from Apple if you don't have it.

Demo with Sorensen codec 320x240, 15fps, 11sec 2.53 Megabytes

If you are having trouble viewing the videos, click here

A 60 min video of a panel discussion of discomfort with stereo displays:
Discussion Forum 1 - 3DTV Dangers: Truth or Fiction?
Part of the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference January 2011.


Alex D. Hwang, Ph.D.

Grant Support

Past Grant Support

NASA-Ames Cooperative agreement No. NCC 2-1039. "Development and Evaluation of a Binocular Stereoscopic Display System with Coupled Convergence and Accommodation Demands"


Faaborg A, Bavor C, Weaver J, Peli E. (2021) Adjusting video rendering rate of virtual reality content and processing of a stereoscopic image (Assigned to Google, Inc.) Continuation of Pat. No. 10,229,540
US Patent US11100714 (August 24, 2021) [ PDF 2.44MB]

Peli E. (2020) Reducing visually induced motion sickness in head mounted display systems (Assigned to Google, Inc.)
US Patent 10,628,994 B2 (Apr. 21, 2020) [ PDF 2MB]

Bastani B, Peli E. (2020) Virtual reality system using super-resolution (Assigned to Google, Inc.)
US Patent 10,572,761 B1 (Feb. 25, 2020) [ PDF 2MB]

Hwang AD and Peli E. (2019) Compensating 3D stereoscopic imagery
US Patent No. 10,397,539 B2, awarded August 27, 2019 [ PDF 1MB]

Spitzer M, Gallant B, Peli E. (2019) Display of binocular overlapping images in a head mounted display. (Assigned to Google, Inc.)
US Patent 10,261,319B2, Apr. 16, 2019 [ PDF 2MB]

Faaborg A, Bavor C, Weaver J, Peli E. (2019) Adjusting video rendering rate of virtual reality content and processing of a stereoscopic image(Assigned to Google, Inc.)
US Patent No. 10,229,540 [ PDF 3MB]

Publications and Presentations

Rodriguez-Lopez V, Barcala X, Zaytoun A, Dorronsoro C, Peli E, Marcos S. (2022) Monovision correction preference and eye dominance measurements, Translational Vision Science & Technology, Inpress.

Hwang AD and Peli E. (2019). Stereoscopic 3D Optic Flow Distortions Caused by Parameters Mismatches between Image Acquisition and Display Parameters. Journal of imaging Science and Technology (JIST). 63(6):60412-1-60412-7(7). DOI: 10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2019.63.6.060412 [ PDF 1.04MB] Data from this study is available on our "Data Sharing" page.

Liu R, Xu M, Zhang Y, Peli E, and Hwang AD (2019). A pilot study on EEG-based evaluation of visually induced motion sickness. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (JIST), 64(2): 020501-1-020501-10. DOI: 10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2020.64.2.020501 [ PDF 1.23MB]

Garcia-Perez MA, Peli E (2019) Psychophysical Tests Do Not Identify Ocular Dominance Consistently. i-Perception, 2019, 10(2): 1-40.
doi: 10.1177/2041669519841397
[ PDF 1.38MB]
Data from this study is available on our "Data Sharing" page.

Xia Z, Peli E. (2018) Cyclopean Eye based Binocular Orientation in Virtual Reality In: 2018 SID International Symposium. [ PDF 1.16MB]

Gao Z, Hwang AD, Zhai G, Peli E. (2018) Correcting Geometric Distortions in Stereoscopic 3D Imaging. PLoS ONE 13(10):e0205032. doi:10.1371/journal/pone.0205032 [ PDF 7.84MB]
Data from this study is available on our "Data Sharing" page.

Hwang AD, Deng H, Gao Z, Peli E (2017) Quantifying visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) during the stereoscopic 3D viewing using VIMS level rating. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 2017; 61(6), 60405-1-60405-9 doi: 10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2017.61.6.060405 [PDF 2.52MB]

García-Pérez MA, Peli E. (2015) Aniseikonia tests: The role of viewing mode, response bias, and size–color illusions. Translational Vision Science & Technology, 2015;4(3):9. doi: 10.1167/tvst.4.3.9. [PDF 2478KB, including supplement] Data from this study is available on our "Data Sharing" page.

Hwang AD, Peli E. (2014) Instability of perceived world while watching 3D stereoscopic imagery: a likely source of motion sickness symptoms. iPerception, 5(6): 515–535. doi:10.1068/i0647 [PDF 3.79MB] [Free online]
Reply: Zhongpai Gao. (2017) Correction to Figures: A Reply to Hwang and Peli (2014) iPerception, 10;8(4):2041669517723929. doi: 10.1177/2041669517723929 [PDF 244KB]

Peli E, Satgunam P. (2014) Bitemporal hemianopia; its unique binocular complexities and a novel remedy. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 34: 233–242. doi: 10.1111/opo.12118. [PDF 3.41MB]

Woods RL, Apfelbaum HL, Peli E. (2010) DLP™-based dichoptic vision test system. Journal of Biomedical Optics 15(1), 016011 pp. 1-13 (January/February 2010) [PDF 1.54 MB]

Peli E. Hedges R. Tang J. Landmann D. (2001). A binocular stereoscopic display system with coupled convergence and accommodation demands.2001 SID International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, San Jose, CA. Society for Information Display. 53.2, 1296-1299. [PDF 240 KB]

Wong BPH, Woods RL, Peli E. Stereoacuity at distance and near. Optom Vision Sci 79(12): 771-778. [PDF 420 KB]

Peli E. Optometric issues with head mounted display. The Ellerbrock Program, Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Optometry, Orlando FL, December 9, 2000, pp. 33 - 36. [Outline of presentation, PDF 22KB]

Peli E. (1999) Optometric and perceptual issues with head-mounted display (HMD). In: Mouroulis P, ed. Optical Design for Visual Instrumentation. McGraw-Hill, New York. pp. 205-276. [PDF 2.48 MB]

Peli E. (1998) The Visual effects of head-mounted display (HMD) are not distinguishable from those of desk-top computer display. Vision Research 38: 2053 - 2066. [PDF 203 KB]

Fischer RE, Reiley DJ, Pope C, and Peli E. (1997). The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements. Paper presented at the RTO HFM Workshop held in Orlando, USA, 5-9 December 1997, and published in RTO MP-54.[PDF 726KB]

Peli E. (1995) Real vision & virtual reality. Optics & Photonics News 6(7): 28-34. [PDF 1.43 MB]

Peli E. (1990) Technical Comment: Binocular depth reversals despite familiarity cues: An artifact? Science 249, No. 4968 (Aug. 3, 1990): 565 [PDF 272 KB]

Peli E. (1984) Functional Difficulties Resulting from Traumatic Anisocoria. American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics 61(8): 548-550 [PDF 113 KB]

Peli E. (1983) A Case in Point: Normal stereo acuity despite anisometropic-amblyopia. Journal of the American Optometric Association. 54(10): 919-921 [PDF 311 KB]


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